17th Century. 1921 - Meir Dizengoff becomes mayor. – The Shah of Iran is ousted by a popular rebellion led by Ayatollah Khomeini, who assumes leadership of the new Islamic Republic of Iran on his return from exile in France. No longer a passive organization under the Arab League control, the PLO, inspired by its largest constituent group al-Fatah, emerges as a political organization committed to armed struggle for the liberation of Palestine. 1920 September - The League of Nations grants the mandate for … The first contacts the U.S. had with the Middle East go back to the late 18th century when immediately after achieving independence, the American administration sought to negotiate peace treaties with the North African states with the objective of securing safe passage for American ships to the Mediterranean. – The League of Arab States is founded in Cairo by Egypt, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria to work for Arab independence and to oppose Zionist aspirations in Palestine. France is granted greater Syria, and Britain takes Iraq. 14th Century. The state, while only a small principality (beylik) durin The Middle East. 1800s. – Crown Prince Farouq of Egypt ascends to the throne following the death of his father, King Fouad. -The National Association of Arab Americans is formed as a foreign policy lobby group, which advocates for a nonpartisan US policy in the Middle East. In the late 20th century, an Islamic revival developed in the Muslim world. – Britain completes its withdrawal from the small princedoms of the Persian Gulf region. – Libya and Tunisia sign the Djerba Treaty of Unity, under the terms of which Tunisia will hold the presidency and Libya the defense ministry. The Algeciras Conference, organized with the help of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, prevents war between France and Germany over colonial rights in Morocco. Control of Morocco is granted to France and Spain. Pierre Gemayel, a Maronite Christian, becomes leader of the Phalange party, a right-wing militant Christian group in Lebanon. 13¾ by 19½ in.framed: 52.5 by 72.5cm. The culture has been identified as one of the earliest divisions of the Stone Age era characterized by tools such as flake tools, microliths, cleavers and bifacial hand axes. Over the next several years, Bendjedid’s policies will strengthen the power of the sole legal party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), and will engage in liberal economic reforms intended to dismantle the socialist system build by his predecessor. World War I ends. Libya and Morocco sign the Oujda Treaty of Union. The mission will last until May 12, 1945, after which time North Africa will resume its life under the colonial regimes. The U.S. Embassy and Marine barracks in Lebanon are bombed. The UMA will largely lie dormant, however, blocked by rivalries between the two main players, Algeria and Morocco, and by their opposing views on the resolution of the western Sahara problem. Oil is discovered in Iran. Abdul Aziz ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina. Its objectives include opposition to French colonialism and the consolidation of the identity of Algerians as Arab and Muslims. 1925 - David Bloch-Blumenfeld becomes mayor. The civil war that ensues will last fifteen years and result in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, as well as the destruction of Lebanon’s economy and infrastructure. Prior to the 1952 coup, Sadat had been engaged in violent activities against the British presence in Egypt, and was imprisoned for his role in the assassination of Amin Othman. It will gradually become a political group and agitate for social and political reforms in Egypt in accordance with a strict interpretation of Islam, as well as for the end of British occupation. – President Nasser of Egypt dies of a heart attack owing in part to a severe fatigue he suffered while trying to arrange the Jordanian-Palestinian truce at the Arab Summit in Cairo. A Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) is set up on September 19th. Abdul Aziz’s victories across the Arabian Peninsula end the rule of the Hashemite family; al-Sharif Hussein is the last Hashemite to rule in Hijaz. Details are in a report from the Ploughshares Project, – War breaks out in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo. – Nasser’s vice president, Anwar al-Sadat, is elected president of Egypt. The Iraqi leader, Hussein, employed every weapon in his arsenal, including Soviet Scud missiles and poison gas purchased from West Germany, and the Iranian regime of Ayatollah Khomeini ordered its Revolutionary Guards to make … – Democratic elections are held in the Sudan. On November 1st, the National Liberation Front (FLN) in Algeria instigates a war of independence against French colonial rule. Abdullah is crowned King of Jordan. As a result, many Palestinian Arabs are dispossessed of their land to make room for the newcomers. – France negotiates a draft treaty of independence with both Syria and Lebanon. The monarchy is abolished and a civil war erupts between republicans and royalists. The organization will come to include a variety of Palestinian groups and will become the primary political representative of the Palestinian people. 1220 - … 21st Century. Iraq also claims that Kuwait has been cheating on its exploitation quota for a jointly-owned oil well located on their common border. King Faisal, who had played a vital role in the implementation of the 1973 Arab oil embargo, is succeeded by his brother, King Khalid. In accordance with their new status as distinct territorial entities, the new countries establish armies and adopt flags and anthems. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. The Islamic Caliphate is effectively abolished as the new republic embarks on a program of modernization and secularization. – General Jafar Numayri leads a military coup in Sudan that overthrows the Mahdi government. -The American Arab Anti-Discrimination committee is formed by US senator Jim Abourezk to advocate for Arab-American rights and a balanced US policy in the Middle East. A High State Council is set up to govern the country until a new president can be appointed. During the next two years, the governing Revolutionary Command Council, led by Nasser, will suspend the constitution, disband parliament, abolish political parties, and initiate an ambitious and widely popular plan for agrarian reform which confiscates land held by the rich and redistributes it to poor peasants. -The Ottoman government determines that the Armenian population is a wartime security threat to the empire. Relations between Israel and Egypt are to be normalized and full diplomatic relations established. The international sanctions against Iraq are modified in August and September in order to allow Iraq to sell oil for the purpose of acquiring food. The UN Security Council passes Resolution 338 which calls for a cease-fire on all fronts. The entire Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza strip fall to Israeli military rule, and thousands of Egyptian troops are either killed or captured. – King Hussein of Jordan, viewing the PLO’s increasing power and influence among his Palestinian subjects as a threat to his regime, orders his forces to attack Palestinian militants in refugee camps. – Yasser Arafat and other Palestinian leaders return to Jericho in the West Bank, as stipulated by the Oslo I agreement, and create the Palestinian Authority, which will assume administrative and security control over the areas evacuated by Israel in the West Bank and Gaza. Artists like Cheb Khaled and Cheb Mami will eventually give this music worldwide appeal. During the course of the Israeli invasion, Phalangist militia, allies of Israel, massacre hundreds of Palestinians in the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila under the watchful eyes of the Israeli forces. 1941 - The Shah's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II … Faysal, the son of al-Sharif Hussein, becomes King of Iraq with the support of Great Britain, which controls the new country under the mandate system. The Druze state under the French mandate rises in revolt, driving the French from the territory. History of Europe - History of Europe - The middle 19th century: During the half century when Romanticism was deploying its talents and ideas, the political minds inside or outside Romanticist culture were engaged in the effort to settle—each party or group or theory in its own way—the legacy of 1789. Public timelines; Search; Sign in; Sign up; The 20th century in the Middle East Timeline created by Hamzeh Arabiyat. King Hussein of Jordan and Prime Minister Rabin of Israel sign a peace treaty ending the state of war between their two countries. – The collapse of the USSR deprives many Arab states of a major diplomatic ally and a supplier of military and other assistance. A cease-fire will be agreed upon in 1991, but as of this writing Morocco and the Polisario have not yet reached an agreement on the conduct of a U.N.-sponsored referendum to determine the final status of the territory. After massive air strikes paralyze Iraqi forces in both Iraq and Kuwait, a ground offensive begins, and lasts 100 hours. – Raï music, formerly banned in Algeria, begins to get radio play in that country. It also focuses on important events, movements, and ideas that prevailed during the last century and affect its … Published. 7 January 2019. The rest of the Arab world is shocked. From the origin of civilization to the modern conflicts that impact the world. Construction of the Aswan High Dam begins in Egypt with the financial and technical assistance of the Soviet Union. By the spring of 1948, more than 400,000 Arabs will have fled their land or been expelled. -Mohandas Gandhi begins his movement of non-cooperation with the British in India. This process sets up a regional state system in an area where previously there existed a unified Ottoman administration. This is explained in more detail in Frontiers in North Africa. See, also, Arabia 1989-1995 for the effect of the war on the countries of the Arabian Penninsula. Islamist militants in the Egyptian army assassinate President Sadat during a military parade commemorating the October 1973 War. The Urban Social History of the Middle East, 1750–1950 is an ambitious attempt to write a comprehensive account of 200 years of Middle East history from a social history perspective. – In Iraq, The Revolutionary Command Council takes power in a coup. – The Moroccan Tahar Ben Jelloun becomes the first Francophone writer from the Arab World to receive the prestigious Prix Goncourt in France, for his novel La Nuit Sacré (The Sacred Night) . 1789 – Beginning already in the eighteenth century, rulers of British India began to make deals, sign treaties with Persian Gulf emirates like Kuwait and Muscat, supposedly vassals of the fading Ottoman Empire. The United States begins to train and support resistance forces. The Middle ages has been a hot topic for centuries, which period was from the 5th all the way to the 15th century in Europe and the Middle East. Next map: Middle East … – Maronite Christian leaders in Lebanon, seeking to maintain the political and economic status quo and to contain PLO guerilla attacks, which are being launched against Israel from south Lebanon, clash with reformist Muslim groups, including poor Shi’ites whose plight the government has ignored. On the Syrian front, the Israeli forces destroy the Syrian defenses and capture the strategic Golan Heights, which will later be annexed to Israel. For the Palestinians it is an annual day of commemoration of the displacement that followed the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. These acts of national sovereignty cement Nasser’s popularity among Arabs but outrage Great Britain, France, and Israel. – King Hassan II of Morocco dies after a thirty-eight year reign. For some documentary footage from this time click here. – Algeria wins independence from France after 132 years of colonial rule and a seven and a half year war which left 1.5 million Algerians dead and the country devastated. He returns on January 16th. After months of heavy shelling of Beirut and other Lebanese cities, as well as hundreds of casualties, Israel withdraws from all of Lebanon except southern border regions. Their presence in the area having become untenable, the British hand the Palestine question to the United Nations. The Islamists, who had already once instigated a violent campaign against the government and military, decide to unleash an all-out war against the regime in order to reclaim their electoral victory and establish an Islamic order in Algeria. – Birth of the Lebanese lutist Marcel Khalifa, one of the most prominent composers and performers of modern Arabic music. All 11 athletes are killed during a botched rescue attempt at the airport. -France determines that the Druze and the ‘Alawites should each have a separate state within the Syrian mandate, effectively cutting the two groups off from political participation in greater Syria. Iraq attacks Iran over a minor border dispute, and a nine-year war between the countries begins. The Aswan High Dam, which will become a symbol of Egyptian national pride and economic prosperity, will be realized with the assistance of the Soviet Union. Nakba Day is generally commemorated on 15 May, the day after the Gregorian calendar date for Israeli Independence Day (Yom Ha'atzmaut). The Tunisian leader, Habib Bourguiba, quickly comes to realize that such a union is likely to work against Tunisia, denounces the treaty, and pulls Tunisia out of it within a month of its signing. At the time, Jews are approximately half the Palestinian population and own about 7% of the land. These actions are based on the Iraqi claim that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq before the British created it artificially as a means of protecting their interests in the Arabian Peninsula. The Sanusiyah Sufi brotherhood mobilizes a popular resistance movement, but the Italians, after a brutal campaign, make the area a settler colony. In December, Arafat announces that the PNC recognizes Israel as a state and condemns terrorism in all its forms — including state terrorism, i.e, that being perpetrated by Israel. was initiated by the Sherif Hussein bin Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. Click here for video footage. The Middle East since the beginning of the 20th century Constructed from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire after the first World War, the current map of contemporary Arab states in the Middle East resulted from the Great Game played out by the European powers during the 19th century. The Palestinians, armed mostly with stones, are vastly outgunned and thousands will be killed in the first three years alone. Spanish control over Northern Morocco is also officially recognized. It includes provisions for the establishment of a permanent Palestinian self-rule. His first task as president is to implement a “National Concord” plan to grant amnesty to all surrendering armed rebels who did not commit blood crime or rape. East Jerusalem remains under Jordanian rule, under the terms of the 1948 cease-fire. The revolt will go on for three years until the British authorities finally succeed in crushing it and dispersing the Palestinian leadership. In Egypt, the political situation is rapidly deteriorating. All three invade Egypt in an attempt to regain control of the canal and to topple Nasser; they will ultimately fail to achieve their objectives, due mainly to pressures from the United States and the Soviet Union. ... one of the most influential works of cultural criticism to appear in the latter half of the 20th century. Italy gives the name “Libya” to its North African colony, which consists of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan. The action fails, though it will be tried again later, twice. 1909 - Tel Aviv founded near Jaffa. There were at least half a dozen great issues claiming attention and arousing passion. On the morning of June 5th, in a preemptive strike, Israeli warplanes destroy almost all of Egypt’s air force and air bases, leaving Egyptian troops in the Sinai without air defenses. Boutros Ghali, the Coptic Prime Minister of Egypt, is assassinated. – Iraqi forces use chemical weapons to attack Kurds in the north of the country. France and the United States are critical of the accord, the main purpose of which is to boost the Libyan and Moroccan positions in regional political maneuverings. – On September 1st, Colonel Mu’ammar Al-Qadhafi leads a military coup that overthrows the Libyan King Idris. Five Syrian fighter jets are shot down and Syria asks Egypt for military support. General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the council’s chairman, become president of Iraq. Middle East; Egypt profile - Timeline. He was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. Hizbullah quickly develops into a powerful political organization whose influence among poor Shi’ite Muslims in Lebanon is increased through the group’s benevolent social and economic services. On October 6, the Jewish holy day Yom Kippur, and during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, Egypt and Syria launch joint surprise air and land attacks on the Israeli forces in the Sinai Desert and the Golan Heights. – King Hussein of Jordan dies of cancer after forty-six years of rule. This is a unique event in Morocco’s modern history, being the first time the opposition has been allowed to lead the government. The 20th Century The 20th-century history of Ethiopia is dominated by one man, Emperor Haile Selassie I. – The British Royal Commission on Palestine recommends the partition of Palestine to establish separate Jewish and Arab states. Thousands of Palestinians, both civilians and military personnel, are killed in what comes to be known as “Black September.” Nasser calls for an emergency Arab Summit in Cairo to arrange for cease-fire. – The beginning of the Nuremberg trials on October 28th sheds light on the extent of Nazi atrocities in Europe. – In Jordan, King Hussein declares martial law. The Oslo II accords are signed in December at the White House in Washington, D.C. by Chairman Yasser Arafat and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in the presence of President Bill Clinton. North and South Yemen are reunited and become the Republic of Yemen; Sanaa is its capital, and Ali Abdallah Salah is its president. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea with the latter. Mesopotamia. Yacine questions the legitimacy of King Hassan II and suggests that he redeem himself by doing away with injustice, by committing himself to the renovation of Islam, and by making himself accountable to a council elected according to Islamic principles. Its leaders accuse the PLO leadership of defeatism and a lack of will to engage the Israelis militarily. A group of young Egyptian officers calling itself the “Free Officers Movement,” led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser and General Muhammad Naguib, overthrow the monarchy, ending the reign of the family dynasty established in 1841 by Muhammad Ali Pasha. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. – UN Resolutions 731 and 748 impose sanctions on Libya for its alleged role in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, and for the bombing of a French UTA plane that exploded over Niger. These sanctions will have a devastating effect on the Iraqi economy. World War II begins. The U.S.-Middle East Connection: Interests, Attitudes and Images. The Camp David Accords will result in the 1979 signing of a treaty stipulating Israel’s return of the Sinai territory to Egypt. Because of its military tactics against Israeli occupation and its political rhetoric, Hamas quickly gains the support of the disenfranchised Palestinian masses. For the majority of Arabs within the Ottoman Empire, Hussein’s actions constitute a treasonous betrayal of the Sultan/Caliph. – Hafez al Assad, the Alawite commander of the Syrian Air Force, leads a coup in the wake of the resignation of President Nur al-Din Attasi, and takes his place. The resistance of Palestinian irregulars and volunteers from neighboring Arab countries is no match for the experienced Irgun and Hadanah Jewish groups. Palestinian Arabs reject this plan, which they perceive as biased against them. Defense Minister Ariel Sharon will be forced to resign in 1983 after a commission of inquiry finds him indirectly responsible for failing to take action to prevent the massacre. – Birth of the enormously popular female Lebanese singer Fairuz . 20th Century. The migration becomes genocidal; as many as one million Armenians die or are killed along the way. – Mu’ammar al-Qadhafi, leader of Libya, proclaims in a speech at Zuwara the “Third Universal Theory,” which comprises four elements: socialism, popular democracy, Arab unity, and progressive Islam. By 1936, it will have 130 schools in the city of Constantine alone, which teach Arabic to pupils and instill in them a national identity based on Ben Badis’ slogan, “Islam is my religion, Arabic is my language, Algeria is my homeland.”. The army replaces him with Colonel Chadli Bendjedid. Video footage is available here. The embargo causes economic hardship in the West and increases oil prices. The scandal shakes the foundations of the Saudi dynasty, whose claim to legitimacy rests on their protection of the holy places. – East and West Pakistan (later Bangladesh) erupt into civil war. The women of the Egyptian Feminist Union spearhead the formation of the Arab Feminist Conference. – Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser seizes power in Egypt. Egyptian troops are put on high alert and moved into the Sinai Desert. All Arab oil-producing nations decide to impose an oil embargo on the United States and the European countries that support Israel. – Death of Michel Aflaq, the Syrian scholar and nationalist militant who played a key role in the development of an Arab nationalist ideology at the end of the colonial era. Howver, in Egypt, the hope for economic prosperity as a divided of peace helps to make the Egyptian populace amenable to the visit. His electoral victory is received with suspicion because all of the other candidates pulled out of the elections when the government refused to investigate fraud allegations. For video footage click here. Thousands of Moroccans march into the western Sahara to assert Morocco’s claim to the territory being vacated by Spain. – King Hassan II of Morocco is challenged on religious and historical grounds by a school teacher, Abdesslam Yacine, who will later become the leader of the most important Islamist movement in Morocco, Adl wa Ihsan (Justice and Benevolence) . The first US Druze Society is formed in Seattle. After two weeks police raid the Grand Mosque, causing approximately 200 casualties on both sides. Under the Balfour Declaration, the British Cabinet promises to facilitate the creation of a Jewish “national home” in Palestine while protecting the civil and religious rights of the area’s existing population of approximately 690,000, made up of 535,000 Muslims, 70,000 Christians (most of whom are Arabs), and 85,000 Jews. The Sultan refuses to do so. The Syrian forces attack Israeli positions in the Golan Heights and achieve similar initial victories. Under the rulership of the Saud family, Wahhabism becomes the official Islamic trend in Saudi Arabia, and will later have a profound influence on the Taliban movement in Afghanistan. Hussein, who served as Egyptian Minister of Education from 1950 to 1952, was also the author of a very controversial thesis on pre-Islamic poetry. – Hussein Ibn Talal, grandson of the assassinated King Abdullah, is declared King of Jordan at age sixteen. British and American forces land in North Africa as “Operation Torch,” commanded by U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and aimed at driving the Axis powers out of the region and mounting an assault on France and Italy. – In August, King Hassan II of Morocco permits a new fifteen-minute TV news broadcast in Tamazight (the Berber language), every five minutes of the segment to be delivered in one each of the three major Berber dialects. Birth of Ali Ahmad Sa’id (Adunis), a Syrian-born Lebanese poet and critic, and a leader of the modernist movement in Arab literature. – Kuwait, which is part of the Ottoman province of Basra, is declared a protectorate by Britain, with the aim of blocking a potential Ottoman challenge and a planned German-sponsored railway through the region, which might pose a threat to British interests in the area and in India. Middle East in the 20th century Period: Jul 28, 1914 to Nov 11, 1918. It examines major political, social, intellectual and cultural issues and practices. In History. The riots, which soon spread to other major cities in Algeria, are harshly repressed, at the cost of the lives of hundreds of young people. The United Arab Emirates is declared an independent state under the leadership of Abu Dhabi’s ruler, Sheikh Zayid Ben Sultan Al Nahayan. – Anwar al-Sadat in Egypt seeks to consolidate his hegemony over the squabbling factions of the Revolutionary Command Council. See an image here. Habib Bourguiba, perceived as the father of modern Tunisia, is elected as the first president of the country. After the group allegedly attacks and kills a number of Syrian policemen in the northern town of Hama, President Hafez al Assad sends in thousands of troops, which besiege the town for days and bombard it with heavy artillery, killing between 5,000 and 25,000 civilians and reducing the town to rubble. The Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) is founded in Gaza to support and sustain the Intifada in the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories. Against this background, the Arabs launch a spontaneous rebellion against British rule and the increasing Zionist presence in Palestine. Property from the Azari Collection, Los AngelesSOHRAB SEPEHRI1928-1980IranianUNTITLEDsigned in Farsigouache and watercolour on papersheet: 34.9 by 49.5cm. In exchange for a British pledge to support a vaguely-defined Arab state independent of Ottoman control after the war, al-Sharif Hussein, the Emir of Mecca, agrees to lead an Arab rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. See the entire history of the Middle East mapped out every year. 20th century. In May 1916 the governments of the United Kingdom, France and Russia agreed the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which defined their proposed spheres of influence and control in Western Asia should the Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I. For two newreel clips of these events click here and here. The Iran–Iraq War (also known as the First Persian Gulf War and by various other names) was an armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the 20th century. The British react by overthrowing the Iraqi government and installing pro-British leaders. – Yasser Arafat is elected chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. – In Algeria, the Army of Islamic Salvation (AIS), the military wing of the banned Front of Islamic Salvation, decides to observe a unilateral truce in the war it has been waging against the state and the civilian population. A chronology of key events: 1516-1918 - Lebanon part of the Ottoman Empire. Saddam Hussein became vice chairman of the council in 1969. In later years, the event will be commemorated annually as the “Amazigh Spring,” and will serve as a yearly opportunity to demand that Tamazight, the Berber language be considered an official national language of Algeria and be taught in schools. Read more here. This social welfare movement receives support from Israel. Pontoon bridges are run across the waterway and Egyptian troops and tanks cross the Suez Canal into the Sinai to recapture parts of the occupied lands. It also imposes temporary limits on Jewish migration to Palestine. The Balfour Declaration (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland. 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2020 middle east timeline 20th century